Scientists use gene editing techniques to make beer more appealing.
According to England "daily mail" reported that the scientists at the university of California, Berkeley, using gene editing techniques, beer, taste tests found that the no special beer hops than with liquor made from hops more warmly.
To achieve this, the researchers genetically engineered yeast strains and used them for wine making, successfully simulating the taste of hops.
According to a paper published by Charles Denby, the use of hops in the brewing process takes a lot of resources -- a lot of water, fertilizer and energy. A pint of beer requires up to 50 pints of water. And hops are expensive.
Mr Denby hopes to use his technology to make quality beer in a more sustainable production process.
The team used CRISPR technology to create new strains of yeast. Crispr-cas9 is a relatively low-cost gene editing tool invented by the university of California, Berkeley.
Denbi and partner Rachel Li inserted four different genes and gene regulation promoters into industrial beer yeast.
Two of these genes (the linalool synthase and germinal synthase) are the genetic code for certain enzymes that produce the fragrance that many plants have. The researchers took the genes of peppermint and basil. The genes of other plants (such as olive and strawberry) have the activity of linalool synthase, which is not easy to deal with.
The remaining two genes are derived from yeast and can promote the formation of certain molecules. The brewing process requires these molecules to produce aromatic camphor and germinol, which are components of hops.
The researchers put yeast, basil, and mint genes, promoters and Cas9 genes into the yeast through tiny, rounded DNA plasmids.
Next, yeast cells convert the Cas9 gene into Cas9 proteins that can cut yeast DNA in certain locations.
After that, the enzyme that fixes the yeast binds four new genes and promoters.
Report explains, "the researchers use specially designed software program suitable mixing promoter to produce linalyl alcohol and geraniol, and their proportion is similar to the sierra Nevada brewery beer company's business in proportion."